In his Commentary on the Whole Epistle to the Hebrews, William Gouge set out 20 things Scripture teaches us that Jesus does as the great Shepherd of His sheep:
1. A true shepherd enters in by the door, John x. 2—that is, he is lawfully called and appointed by God; so was our Lord Jesus, Heb. 5:5. ‘The porter opens to the shepherd, John 10:3 ; so the ministers of the church acknowledge Christ to be sent of God, and answerably entertain him, John 6:69, 1 Pet. 2:25.
3. A shepherd calls his sheep by name, John 10:3; so ‘the Lord knows them that are his,’ 2 Tim. 2:19.
4. A shepherd knows his own sheep, John 10: 3. Thus Christ judges between cattle and cattle, Ezek. 34:17.
5. A shepherd leads out his sheep, John 10:8; so Jesus is a guide to his sheep. He is ‘ the way, the truth, and the life,’ John 14:6; that true way wherein his sheep may attain unto life.
6. A shepherd orders the affairs of his sheep in season; he ‘puts them forth,’ John 10:4, namely, when it is time for them to go out of the fold. Christ does things when it is time, John 7:6.
7. A shepherd goes before his sheep, John 10:4. In this respect Christ is styled our captain, Heb. 2:10.
8. A shepherd provides for his sheep, 1 Chron. 4:40; so doth Christ, John 10:9, Ps. 23: 2.
9. A shepherd procures safety for his sheep. This is implied under this phrase, which Christ applieth to himself, ‘he shall be saved, and shall go in and out.’
10. A shepherd hazards his life for his sheep, 1 Sam. 17:35; so doth Christ, John 10:17.
11. A shepherd so acquaints himself with his sheep, as they know his voice, John 10:4; so the church knows the voice of Christ, John 10:14.
12. A shepherd so governs his sheep, as they follow him, John 10:4; so doth Christ govern his church, 1 Cor. 11:1.
13. A shepherd marks his sheep, so as he may know them from others. Thus Christ by his Spirit ‘seals’ his, Eph. 4:30.
14. A shepherd watches over his sheep, Gen. 31:40, Luke 2:8. Thus doth Christ, John 17:6.
15. A shepherd tenderly heals his sheep. Thus doth Christ, Ezek. 34:16, Mat. 8:16.
16. A shepherd keeps his sheep together, that they do not stray, Gen. 30:29. For this end Christ hath his assemblies and ordinances.
17. A shepherd seeks out the sheep that stray; so doth Christ, Mat. 18:11, 12.
18. A shepherd will carry such sheep as are feeble and cannot go; so Christ, Luke 15:5.
19. A shepherd will be accountable for his sheep, Gen. 31: 39; so also is Christ, John 17:12.
20. A shepherd will keep the infected from the clean; so Christ, 1 Cor. 10:4, &c.